Sunday 18 February 2018

What are Bitcoins
What are Bitcoins ?

What Are Bitcoins?

Bitcoin was the primary cryptocoin cash at any point concocted. Nobody knows precisely who made it – digital forms of money are intended for most extreme secrecy – yet bitcoins first showed up in 2009 from an engineer probably named Satoshi Nakamoto. He has since vanished and abandoned a Bitcoin fortune.

Since Bitcoin was the primary cryptographic money to exist, every single advanced cash made from that point forward are called Altcoins, or elective coins. Litecoin, Peercoin, Feathercoin, Ethereum and many different coins are all Altcoins on the grounds that they are not Bitcoin.

One of the upsides of Bitcoin is that it can be put away disconnected on a man's nearby equipment. That procedure is called cool stockpiling and it shields the cash from being taken by others. At the point when the cash is put away on the web some place (hot capacity), there is high danger of it being stolen.

On the other side, if a man loses access to the equipment that contains the bitcoins, the money is essentially gone until the end of time. It's evaluated that as much as $30 billion in bitcoins have been lost or lost by mineworkers and speculators. Regardless, Bitcoins remain unfathomably prevalent as the most popular digital currency after some time.

Why Bitcoins Are So Controversial

Different reasons have joined to make Bitcoin cash a genuine media sensation.

From 2011-2013, criminal brokers made bitcoins well known by getting them in clumps of a huge number of dollars so they could move cash outside of the eyes of law requirement. Along these lines, the estimation of bitcoins soar.

Tricks, as well, are genuine in the digital currency world. Gullible and sharp speculators alike can lose hundreds or thousands of dollars to tricks.

At last, however, bitcoins and altcoins are profoundly disputable in light of the fact that they remove the influence of profiting from focal government banks, and offer it to the overall population. Bitcoin accounts can't be solidified or inspected by impose men, and go between banks are totally pointless for bitcoins to move. Law authorization and investors see bitcoins as 'gold pieces in the wild, wild west', outside the ability to control of customary police and money related foundations.

How Bitcoins Work

Bitcoins are exchanged from one individual 'wallet' to another. A wallet is a little individual database that you store on your PC drive (i.e cool stockpiling), on your cell phone, on your tablet, or some place in the cloud (hot capacity).

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What is Programming Languages?

What is Programming Languages?

What is Programming Languages
What is Programming Languages
Programming language are special types of languages which are installed in computer system as application software. These Programming languages use special syntax, keywords and instructions which are easily understood by our own computer system to get desired output.

There are mainly two types of programming languages::
1] High-Level Languages
2] Low-Level Languages

 High-Level Languages are also known as formal computer languages .These language are nothing but a collection of computers vocabulary and set of grammatical rules which are primarily responsible to communicate or co-ordinates with computer system to obtain or perform certain task and jobs.

High Level Languages are used to create applications software and scripts which can be used by end user to perform their tasks and jobs to receive proper and accurate results.

Example:: Imagine you are running a company with hundreds and hundreds of employees working for you .You can create a application software or user written software to maintain their records such there joining data personal information’s.

Any this software which you have developed with the help of software engineer can calculate the salary of your employees within fraction of second with deduction and incentives which used to take several long hours when done manually.

High Level languages need help of interpreter to convert the code into machine level language which is in the form of binary 0s and 1s.

Common Examples of High Level Languages :: BASIC, VISUAL BASIC, JAVA, C++, DOT NET and so on.

Low Level Languages :: These languages are called as basic language or machine level languages which is in the form of 0’s and 1’s .These machine language is highly complex then high level languages which I have mentioned above.

Machine level language does not use interpreter to convert binary language as it is easily understood by computer system.

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Saturday 17 February 2018

Design of Computer System and its Architect

Design of Computer System

Computer Architecture
PC is an electronic machine that makes playing out any assignment simple. In PC, the CPU executes every direction gave to it, in a progression of steps, this arrangement of steps is called Machine Cycle, and is rehashed for every guideline. One machine cycle includes bringing of direction, unraveling the guideline, exchanging the information, executing the direction.

PC framework has five essential units that assistance the PC to perform tasks, which are given beneath:

Information Unit

Information unit associates the outer condition with inside PC framework. It gives information and guidelines to the PC framework. Normally utilized information gadgets are console, mouse, attractive tape and so on.

Yield Unit

It associates the inside arrangement of a PC to the outside condition. It gives the aftereffects of any calculation, or guidelines to the outside world. Some yield gadgets are printers, screen and so forth.

Capacity Unit

This unit holds the information and guidelines. It additionally stores the moderate outcomes previously these are sent to the yield gadgets. It additionally stores the information for later utilize.

The capacity unit of a PC framework can be partitioned into two classes:

Essential Storage

This memory is utilized to store the information which is in effect as of now executed. It is utilized for transitory capacity of information. The information is lost, when the PC is turned off. Slam is utilized as essential stockpiling memory.

Auxiliary Storage

The optional memory is slower and less expensive than essential memory. It is utilized for changeless capacity of information. Usually utilized auxiliary memory gadgets are hard circle, CD and so on.

Number juggling Logical Unit

Every one of the counts are performed in ALU of the PC framework. The ALU can perform essential tasks, for example, expansion, subtraction, division, increase and so on. At whatever point counts are required, the control unit exchanges the information from capacity unit to ALU. At the point when the activities are done, the outcome is exchanged back to the capacity unit.

Control Unit

It controls every other unit of the PC. It controls the stream of information and guidelines to and from the capacity unit to ALU. Along these lines it is otherwise called focal sensory system of the PC.


It is Central Processing Unit of the PC. The control unit and ALU are as one known as CPU. CPU is the mind of PC framework. It performs following assignments:

What is a Computer Hard Disk Drive?

What is a Computer Hard Disk Drive?

Computer Hard Disk Drive

Computer Hard Disk is likewise called as a hard drive, HDD (Hard Disk Drive), Fixed Disk.It is utilized as an optional stockpiling gadget, they are a non-unstable memory (Data isn't lost when control is off) Hard drives are least expensive and quicker gadget which is utilized for information stockpiling. This day's hard plate comes in enormous information stockpiling limit, for example, 160 GB(Giga Byte),250 GB, 500GB, 1TB (Terabyte),2TB.they have a pivoting speed of 7200 rpm, 9200 rpm(Revolution Per minute),15000 rpm and the entrance speed of hard drives are approx 1000 kb for each second.

The hard circle was first presented in 1956 for IBM.Hard drives are the most vital piece of the PC framework where all the imperative information has been put away for all time. As when you constructed your new PC you introduce working framework in the hard plate if hard drives come up short your PC stops responding.

Hard drives are comprised of inflexible materials, it has a circle formed platter made up of aluminum or glass and is covered with a thin layer of attractive material the platters are hard and can't be twist, accordingly, are called as the settled circle. The Sizes of circle platters change from 1 to 14 creeps in diameter.

HDD record information by polarizing ferromagnetic material directionally to speak to either 0 and 1 of every a double form.

How Hard Disk Works?

The hard drive comprises of turning circle with heads that move over the plate and stores information in tracks and parts. The head read and write in a type of rings frequently called as Tracks, which are additionally partitioned and are called as areas, which can hide away to 512 bytes.

Hard circle have numerous circle and are called as platters, they are organized over each other and they turn as needs be, every one of the two sides are fabricated to store information, numerous hard drives have more than 2 platters which brings about four or six , some hard drives have 12 platters and 24 sides in addition to 24 heads which are utilized to peruse and compose. The adjusted tracks on each side of each platter together make up a cylinder.

A hard circle has one head for every platter with all heads mounted on a typical arm; the head moves quickly with an overwhelming rate over the circle, they are mounted on a rack which is called as an actuator.

A large portion of the hard plate speed completely relies on their turn speed before numerous hard circle pivot at 3600 rpm which was a steady speed around then yet as the innovation created numerous producer construct hard circle with more transformation speed.

A large number of the current drives turn the platters at 4200 rpm, 7200 rpm, 10,000 rpm, and 15000 rpm. Which emerges the purposes behind quicker hard drive speed which can thus get to the information speedier?

The heads in most hard circle drives don't (and ought not!) touch the platters amid ordinary task. At the point when the heads are fueled off, be that as it may, in many drives they arrive on the platters as they stop Turning. While the drive is running, a thin pad of air keeps each head suspended a shortWhile the hard circle is in working position you are advices not to touch the platters and head while in moving position this activity can truly harm you hard drive.

Tuesday 6 February 2018

What is Operating System? and its types

What is Operating System? and its types

What is Operating System
What is Operating System
Operating system in other words can be called as system software which is responsible to run computer hardware and software to its functionality.
Operating Systems are also called as OS which acts like and intermediate between computer user and computer hardware.

No computer can run without an operating system as it manages computer resources and computer software to derived the result .Operating system [OS] is considered as the most important program of the computer system without it user can not be able to access computer system to its full potential.

Operating system also performs important task like performing a scan on input section and output section of the computer systems as well as it recognizes and carry out operations like receiving inputs from keyboards and presenting output with the help of computer screen and printers.

It also manages computer files and directories present in the computer hard disk drives which are responsible to communicate with the users while performing some special and defined task and operations.

For all general purposes like executing system and application software we require system software which is Operating system or OS.

When computer were first invented the computer users had a single tool which was called as command line where user used to type certain commands to derived required results.

This interface was named as Non GUI which stands for Graphical User Interface this interface was unable to handle request for mouse or any other pointing devices like pen like stylus or pointers. They preferably used keyboards as their input medium and heavily relied on computer screen to present outputs.

To use this type of interface users had to know some common and basic dos commands which were very hard to memorize and execute . Dos commands are nothing but a syntax for some special characters which were typed in the system using computer keyboard to derived accurate result.

As this process was long and tedious people got bored easily and later new operating system were developed which were possessed with GUI Interface [Graphical User Interface] where users just need to operate computers using pointing devices like mouse.

With the help of this pointing devices or input device user found it extremely easy to communicate with computer sytem.

Classifications of Operating System?

Multi User: This type of operating system can be accessed by more than single user at a time as they have the capability to run the program multiple times by the users.

Multiprocessing:: This type of Operating System has more than one CPU [Central Processing Unit]

Multitasking:: More than 1 program can be executed or run on this type of systems.

Multithreading: At a single time a single program can be run simultaneously

Characteristics of Operating System?

The Computer Operating System is nothing but a collection of system program which can run or have the capacity to run another program at a single given time.

The Computer OS is capable to perform input and output functions of computer system as well as control and co-ordinates with another computer hardware devices attached with system. 

The OS also coordinates with internal and external process of system and help the run smoothly and if any this goes wrong it prompt users with a error message on the computer output device which is mainly computer screen or monitor.

Not only it regulates and controls computer hardware and software it also help application software to run and execute within its system. One thing to mention here the application software you are going to use in your system be similar to the OS which you are using or in other words the platform which operating system has been developed must be similar to the application software which you are going to use.

Let’s say you have installed windows 8 operating system on your computer now the application software must be window based software if you try to install Linux based software it will refuse to run and display you with an error message.

Different Types of Operating System?

There are many operating system which are developed and designed for some special and precise task the leading giant in the software industry is Microsoft Incorporation.

Microsoft has developed some of the best and incredible operating system which has taken the IT sector like a storm and is dominating the computer software industry from more than a decade now.

Due to their continuous testing and doing great advancement in the It sector they are ruling the IT Industry.

Free Open source Software

Linux and Unix are the operating system which are open source in simple words they are free to use and re write any application inside them for better functionality and serve others.

But before starting you must be a good programmer to do it. This operating system are very secure and less threat of virus and hacking attacks are found when user uses this OS.

The application program which are installed in this operating system are Linux based as they do not support any Microsoft platform based software whether it may be system software or Application software.

Monday 5 February 2018

What is Computer Booting and Types of Booting?

What is Computer Booting and Types of Booting?

When you press the on switch present on the CPU [Central Processing unit] or in other words an on switch present on the computer cabinet or chassis computer start to respond or start this is called as computer booting.

As soon as you press the power on the key from computer cabinet disk is loaded from RAM [Random Access Memory] for further activities necessary for the complete and secure boot process.
The list of the task done when the computer starts it booting process.








Let us discuss each and every operation in details follow me

What is POST?

POST stands for [Power on Self Test] that actually means in this process computer check itself firstly it check ram whether or not it is damaged or corrupted and diagnosed the size and capacity of RAM.
Later it checks for all the components and peripherals which are attached to it are working in proper order.

For Example, it checks hard disk cables, DVD Cables and so on. If anything unusual and suspicious occurs during the process of computer booting and if found it displays an error message on the computer screen.

What is Boot Record?

After the process of POST ends the control is shifted to boot record which is responsible to maintain all the necessary records important like the size and the characteristics of computer hard disk drive.

 What is Dos Kernel?

This is a very important process in computer booting or computer starting point where dos kernel is loaded in the memory for further processing.

What is System Configurations?

After the dos kernel is loaded into the computer memory it finds a system file.These system files basically have an extension of .sys which are responsible for better functionality where these system files can be changed according to the user requirement.

As these are most important system files of the computer it is highly recommended never change or edit or remove this file from the computer system as it can affect the complete boot process of computer and will prompt an error message when finding any vulnerability.

What is a file?

There is a primary system file which is responsible for the computer to start properly without any disturbance as this file is loaded in computer memory after the system files are configured.
Before we talk further you must be aware of how to boot from a CD or DVD?

What are the types of Computer Booting?

There are mainly two types of computer booting

1] Warm Booting
2] Cold Booting

Now let us discuss on what is warm booting?

Warm Boot is a process where you intentionally restart or shutdown your computer by pressing a CTRL+SHIFT+DEL key from the keyboard or just by pressing reset switch present on the computer cabinet.

Reset Switch is normally seen just behind or beside the Power key present on computer chassis or computer cabinet. It is usually smaller than the power key.

These warm boots are usually done when the computer stops responding or freeze due to an internal error these can occur because of virus infection or computer hardware malfunction.

What is Cold Booting?

Cold Booting is a process where you just start your computer by pressing power on the key from computer cabinet.

Can I Change The Boot Order of Computer System?

The answer is a “BIG YES”

To Boot or start a computer from any other sources you must be aware of CMOS or BIOS configuration of computer system .Let me try to explain what I said above.

BIOS configurations is a motherboard utility which is used to change the system configuration according to your needs let say you need to change the boot order of computer may be you need to install a fresh operating system from USB pen drive or DVD or CD. It is mandatory to change the boot sequence accordingly.

Here is a sample picture how BIOS utility programs look like.


Go to advanced option change the boot sequence accordingly.

Now if you want to install any operating system on your computer using USB pen drive or any other USB medium change the setting which suits you the best. Before starting you must create a bootable pen drive using any free software’s like Novicorp Win to flash or Rufus.

Sunday 4 February 2018

What is a Dos Operating System?

What is a Dos Operating System?  and Dos Commands

MS-Dos is an operating system which is based on non-GUI [Graphical User Interface] technology. A computer system needs a system software or in other words operating system to run smoothly or in full functionality.

Microsoft Disk Operating System

Dos operating system stands for [Microsoft Disk Operating System] which is designed and developed by Microsoft in the year 1981 for IBM.

This Operating system acts as an intermediate between user and computer system. To run this operating system user must be familiar with basic dos commands which are internal and external dos commands.

What are internal dos commands?

Internal dos commands are those commands which are executed within a command file named as this file is found missing or corrupted or damaged or deleted those internal dos commands will not be executed as these commands require a supporting file named as

To require the desired result in msdos one must type certain commands to derive specific results.
Some of the examples of basic internal dos commands are as follows:
  • Ver
  • Vol
  • Time
  • Del
  • Md
  • Cd
  • Copy con
  • Cls
  • Date
  • Ren

And so on

What are external dos commands?

External dos commands require external files which are stored in computer hard disk drive or any other bootable medium. The user will be unable to execute certain external dos commands if and only if supporting files found missing.

Some of the examples of external dos commands are mentioned below:

  • Xcopy
  • Diskcopy
  • Doskey
  • Chkdsk
  • Edit
  • Checkdisk
  • Attrib
  • Scandisk

And so on..

To Run this operating system the computer system needs to run store it in the computer memory. Dos works as the intermediate between hardware and software it translates the dos commands which are typed using the computer keyboard and later it stores in computer hard disk drive.

Advantages of using MS-Dos Operating System
  • Creating file, deleting and renaming
  • You can view a complete list of files and directories which are stored in computer hard disk drive.
  • You can divide computer hardware into separate two parts.
  • You can also format the new floppy disk.
  • You can also backup from floppy to hard disk and hard disk to floppy it's vice-versa
  • You can also be using wildcards for better performance.

Does Dos Perform on it own?
  • It controls CPU and Computer memory
  • It identifies computer harmful viruses
  • It distributes various programs in computer memory
  • It also controls and regulates various other devices in computer memory
  • It takes instructions from the keyboard and presents on the computer screen.